# Electrical Resistance Pdf

It is usually negative for semiconductors and insulators, with highly variable magnitude. If these pressures are equal, no water flows. Conductivity electrolytic. Engineering System Dynamics.

Just as the resistance of a conductor depends upon temperature, the resistance of a conductor depends upon strain. These are called nonlinear or nonohmic.

Electrical resistance and conductance Electricity Physical quantities Electromagnetism. The electrical resistance of an object is a measure of its opposition to the flow of electric current. The dissipation of electrical energy is often undesired, hey whipple squeeze this pdf particularly in the case of transmission losses in power lines. In general, self-heating can turn a resistor into a nonlinear and hysteretic circuit element. If a large current is running through the resistor, the resistor's temperature rises and therefore its resistance changes. Therefore, if superconductive wire is made into a closed loop, current flows around the loop forever.

Photoresistor and Photoconductivity. The small difference is due to thermal expansion changing the dimensions of the resistor. When temperature-dependent resistance of a component is used purposefully, the component is called a resistance thermometer or thermistor. Semiconductors lie between these two extremes. What material it is made of, and its shape.

Examples include diodes and fluorescent lamps. The pressure difference between two sides of a pipe, not the pressure itself, determines the flow through it. In semiconductors, resistivity also changes when exposed to light. The resistance R and conductance G of a conductor of uniform cross section, therefore, can be computed as. Why is there such a difference? This material dependence is quantified by resistivity or conductivity. Near room temperature, the resistivity of metals typically increases as temperature is increased, while the resistivity of semiconductors typically decreases as temperature is increased. For electrical conductivity in general, see Electrical resistivity and conductivity. See the discussion on strain gauges for details about devices constructed to take advantage of this effect. The temperature coefficient of resistivity is similar but not identical to the temperature coefficient of resistance.

Electrical impedance and Admittance. For example, in an ideal resistor, the moment when the voltage reaches its maximum, the current also reaches its maximum current and voltage are oscillating in phase. Conductors are made of high- conductivity materials such as metals, in particular copper and aluminium. Electromagnetic Compatibility Handbook.

One reason, mentioned above is the skin effect and the related proximity effect. Conductance and resistance are reciprocals. In the same way, a long, thin copper wire has higher resistance lower conductance than a short, thick copper wire. In some cases, however, the effect is put to good use.

As a consequence, the resistance of wires, resistors, and other components often change with temperature. Electrical resistivities of the elements data page and Electrical resistivity and conductivity.

For the detailed behavior and explanation, see Electrical resistivity and conductivity. Many electrical elements, such as diodes and batteries do not satisfy Ohm's law.

## Electrical resistance and conductance

This formula is not exact, as it assumes the current density is totally uniform in the conductor, which is not always true in practical situations. Resistivity varies with temperature. Therefore, the resistance and conductance of objects or electronic components made of these materials is constant. This electrical energy is dissipated, heating the resistor in the process. Resistance thermometers and thermistors are generally used in two ways.

Conductance is proportional to how much flow occurs for a given pressure, and resistance is proportional to how much pressure is required to achieve a given flow. On the other hand, Joule heating is sometimes useful, for example in electric stoves and other electric heaters also called resistive heaters.

Other factors and conditions are relevant as well. For example, a wire's resistance is higher if it is long and thin, and lower if it is short and thick. By measuring the resistance, the temperature of the environment can be inferred.  ## Electrical resistance and conductance

The differential resistance at A is the inverse slope of tangent line C. These are a common type of light detector. For more details see Thermistor Self-heating effects.

This effect may be undesired, causing an electronic circuit to malfunction at extreme temperatures. For the term used when referring to touchscreens, see resistive touchscreen. Geometry is important because it is more difficult to push water through a long, narrow pipe than a wide, short pipe.

For other types of conductivity, see Conductivity. Incandescent light bulb filament typical. For example, there may be a large water pressure above the pipe, which tries to push water down through the pipe. Substances in which electricity can flow are called conductors.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. An instrument for measuring resistance is called an ohmmeter. The static resistance at point A is the inverse slope of line B through the origin. In the image at right, the water pressure below the pipe is zero. Materials are important as well.

This article is about specific applications of conductivity and resistivity in electrical elements. The resistivity and conductivity are proportionality constants, and therefore depend only on the material the wire is made of, not the geometry of the wire. Electrical resistivity and conductivity. Examples of ohmic components are wires and resistors.

For this reason, the geometrical cross-section is different from the effective cross-section in which current actually flows, so resistance is higher than expected. Resistors, on the other hand, are made of a wide variety of materials depending on factors such as the desired resistance, amount of energy that it needs to dissipate, precision, and costs. Both these effects contribute to increasing the resistance of the strained section of conductor. Therefore, they are called photoresistors or light dependent resistors. However, this formula still provides a good approximation for long thin conductors such as wires.